Training

 
National workshop on healthcare waste management in Argentina
 
 
Training and continuing education are essential components of healthcare waste management. Training can take many forms: classroom-type instruction, self-instruction, web-based distance learning, mentoring at the workplace, in-service (on-the-job) training, small group discussions, etc. Training should be institutionalized in healthcare facilities and linked to organizational policies, human resource development, staff evaluation, accreditation or licensing, and continuous quality improvement.
 
Training objectives should be well-defined and measurable (often expressed in the form of core competencies) and should reflect the needs of the participants. Training materials should be tailored to the job function, level of education, and learning styles of the participants. Thus, the training for administrators and clerical staff differs from that for medical and nursing staff and from that for waste handlers and cleaning staff.
 
The UNDP GEF Project developed a comprehensive set of training modules and resources which were harmonized with WHO’s reference handbook Safe management of waste for health-care activities. Adult learning is facilitated by experiential training techniques which integrate knowledge with action, reflection, application in the workplace, and organizational support. Hence, in addition to presentations that impart knowledge, the training modules suggest practical problem-solving activities, discussion questions, and small-group activities. The 25 modules are used with a master curriculum/instructor manual and include instructor guides, student handouts, and evaluation forms. Some PowerPoints include blank slides for incorporating country or site specific information.
 
RESOURCES
 
Master Curriculum/Instructor Manual with Appendices:  Describes the modules, how to use the materials, and how to construct a training program including training of trainers; discusses educational training methods, target audiences, evaluation, administration of the modules and resources, pre- and post-training evaluation forms, instructor and course evaluation forms, sample planning activity tool, and sample student manual.
 
Module 1 Definition Sources and Characteristics of Healthcare Waste: Defines healthcare waste and describes sources, examples and characteristics of healthcare waste
 
Module 2 Health and Environmental Impacts of Healthcare Wastes: Describes the hazards of healthcare waste, who is at risk, and the chain of infection; lists common pathogens associated with healthcare waste; describes potential public health and environmental impacts of healthcare waste
 
Module 3 International and National HCWM Laws, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Introduces basic environmental concepts, defines guiding principles of waste management, and describes WHO policies, Basel and Stockholm Conventions in relation to healthcare waste, and national and local laws
 
Module 4 National Healthcare Waste Management Planning, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Defines the goals and objectives of national healthcare waste planning, delineates the steps for developing a national plan and its implementation, and outlines the major topics of a national plan
 
Module 5 HCWM Planning in a Healthcare Facility, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Describes the principles of healthcare waste management, the steps for developing a facility plan, the members and tasks of the healthcare waste management team, and how to conduct a waste assessment; discusses obstacles to implementing a plan and how to overcome them
 
Module 6 Occupational Health and Safety, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Discusses principles of workplace safety, the hierarchy of controls to reduce risk, components of an effective health and safety program, training, personal hygiene, PPE, immunization, and incident and post-incident response with an emphasis on healthcare waste management
 
Module 7 Walkthrough of a Healthcare Facility, Instructor Guide for Modules 7 & 8, Student Guide for Modules 7 & 8: Provides a checklist of what to observe and evaluate in relation to healthcare waste management as one conducts a walk-through of a health facility
 
Module 8 Walkthrough a Healthcare Waste Treatment Facility, Instructor Guide for Modules 7 & 8, Student Guide for Modules 7 & 8: Provides a checklist of what to observe and evaluate in relation to healthcare waste management as one conducts a walk-through of a healthcare waste treatment facility
 
Module 9 Classification of Healthcare Waste, Instructor Guide for Modules 9 & 10, Student Guide for Modules 9 & 10: Describes general classification of healthcare waste and gives examples of each classification
 
Module 10 Segregation of Healthcare Waste, Instructor Guide for Modules 9 & 10, Student Guide for Modules 9 & 10: Describes the importance of waste segregation, color-coding and requirements for containers; demonstrates waste segregation
 
Module 11 Healthcare Waste Minimization, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Describes the waste management hierarchy, practices to encourage waste minimization, environmentally preferable purchasing methods, safe reuse, materials recovery and safe reuse; gives an introduction to environmental management systems
 
Module 12 Labeling Handling and Collection of Healthcare Waste, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Describes appropriate labeling, handling and collection procedures, with particular emphasis on infectious and sharps wastes; presents steps in developing a collection system; describes ways to handle common problems
 
Module 13 Onsite Transport and Storage of Healthcare Waste, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Presents basic principles of waste transport and equipment specifications; describes routing, specifications for storage areas, and requirements for storing waste 
 
Module 14 Offsite Transport and Storage of Healthcare Waste, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Describes requirements for transport of waste outside health facilities including training requirements and PPE; describes vehicle requirements, routing, consignment system, and off-site storage requirements
 
Module 15 Non-Incineration Treatment and Disposal, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Presents the principles and approaches for waste treatment; describes basic treatment processes, factors to consider when selecting treatment methods, types of non-incineration treatment technologies and their advantages and disadvantages, and disposal options
 

Module 16 Incineration of Healthcare Waste and the Stockholm Convention Guidelines, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Describes factors to consider when selecting treatment methods, the basics and types of incinerators, environmental and health impacts of incinerators, Stockholm Convention guidelines for incinerators, and maintenance requirements for incinerators and air pollution control devices
Presentation Instructor Guide Student Guide

Module 17 Management of Specific Infectious Wastes, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Discusses management procedures including treatment and disposal of sharps, blood and body fluids, cultures and stocks, pathological waste, and placenta
Presentation Instructor Guide Student Guide

Module 18 Management of Chemical Cytotoxic Pharmaceutical and Radioactive Wastes, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Describes the sources, types, risks, and management including treatment and disposal of chemical, cytotoxic, pharmaceutical and radioactive waste health facilities
Presentation Instructor Guide Student Guide

Module 19 Rationale for Mercury Free Health Care, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Describes the chemical and physical properties of mercury, its health effects from acute and chronic exposure, impacts on children, sources of mercury in the environment, the WHO policy on mercury, and the Minamata Convention
Presentation Instructor Guide Student Guide

Module 20 Management and Storage of Mercury Waste, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Presents data on toxicity and occupational exposure limits for mercury; describes the hierarchy of mercury waste management, elements of a mercury phase-out, materials and procedures for cleaning up a mercury spill, and requirements for on-site storage of mercury waste from health care
Presentation Instructor Guide Student Guide

Module 21 Non-Mercury Alternatives, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Lists mercury-containing products in health facilities and their alternatives; describes different types of non-mercury thermometers and sphygmomanometers, existing standards and specifications, and methods of validation and calibration
Presentation Instructor Guide Student Guide

Module 22 Contingency Planning and Emergency Response to Healthcare Waste Spills, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Gives example of contingencies related to healthcare waste; describes steps in developing a contingency plan, procedures for dealing with waste spills, injuries and accidental exposures to waste; discusses contingencies related to epidemics, major emergencies, and disasters
Presentation Instructor Guide Student Guide

Module 23 Management of Healthcare Wastewater, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Describes sources, characteristics and hazards of wastewater in a health facility; describes treatment and disposal options for wastewater from health facilities
Presentation Instructor Guide Student Guide

Module 24 Institutionalization of Healthcare Waste Management, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Describes the steps for institutionalizing a healthcare waste management program, including training; describes costing tools and budgeting for healthcare waste management, and principles of continuous quality improvement
Presentation Instructor Guide Student Guide

Module 25 Hospital Hygiene Infection Control and HCWM, Instructor Guide, Student Guide: Describes nosocomial infections, standard and transmission-based precautions for infection control, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization, hand hygiene, measures to improve infection control, and components of an infection control program, with emphasis on healthcare waste management
Presentation Instructor Guide Student Guide

UNDP GEF HCWM Master Curriculum - Instructor Manual w Appendices:  Describes the purpose of the training materials, how they can be used, various teaching methods, the different target audiences, how to construct a training program, training of trainers, evaluation, the administration of the training modules and resources, and evaluation forms. Download

Core Competencies for 14 Positions Related to Healthcare Waste Management:  Defines a set of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are essential for the effective performance of a job function, that establish a framework for training and education, that can be measured against standards, that provide a basis from which to gain additional competence through professional development, and that can be tested or demonstrated for the purpose of accreditation or certification in certain job functions. Recommended core competencies in relation to healthcare waste management are presented for administrative personnel, HCWM coordinators, facility managers, health professionals, waste workers, support staff, internal waste collectors, treatment technology operators, off-site collectors and transporters, central treatment facility personnel, landfill managers and workers, master trainers and facility trainers in HCWM. Download

 

Training Module for Common Healthcare Waste Treatment Facilities: Training module on components of a central treatment facility, minimal area requirements, services, treatment and disposal technologies, monitoring and reporting, and a case study developed by the Indira Gandhi National Open University for the UNDP GEF Project in India

Hospital Infection Control Training Module: Training module on infection control, antibiotic policy, sterilization, disinfection, decontamination practices, standard precautions, aseptic practices, housekeeping activities, laundry management, kitchen sanitation and food handling, and staff health activities developed by the Indira Gandhi National Open University for the UNDP GEF Project in India

Patient Safety Training Module: Training module on principles and situations for patient safety, preventing falls, hand hygiene, medication safety, blood safety, patient identification, patient involvement and education, staff communications, surgical fires, wrong site surgery, patient safety committee, human engineering, factor, training and education developed by the Indira Gandhi National Open University for the UNDP GEF Project in India


Summary Outline of Training Materials: Provides outlines of waste management training materials from various sources

Training Videos


Report on the Argentina Training Program


Report on the India Training Program


Report on the Latvia Training Program


Report on Lebanon Training Program


Report on Philippine Training Program


Report on Senegal Training Program


Report on Vietnam Training Program


Brochure on the Certificate Program in Health Care Waste Management of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)   IGNOU was a project partner of the UNDP GEF Project on Global Healthcare Waste.