Best Available Technologies

The Stockholm Convention calls for giving priority consideration to technologies that avoid the formation and release of dioxins and furans. The UNDP GEF project demonstrated state-of-the-art non-incineration technologies that do not generate dioxins and furans. These technologies use thermal, mechanical, biological or chemical processes to treat the waste.

Thermal processes rely on heat to destroy pathogens in the waste. Unlike incineration and pyrolysis, more


Autoclaves have been used for over a century to sterilize medical and surgical instruments and have been adapted for the treatment of infectious waste. Autoclaves use moist heat (steam) to destroy disease-causing microorganisms (pathogens) in the waste. Since autoclaving does not entail burning of the waste, dioxins, acid gases, and other major air pollutants are not generated in the process.

An autoclave consists of a metal vessel designed to more

Integrated Steam-Based Treatment Systems

In addition to autoclaves, other steam-based treatment systems have been developed for the purpose of improving the penetration of steam into the waste, achieving more uniform heating in the treatment chamber, rendering the waste unrecognizable, and/or making the treatment process a continuous (rather than a batch) process. These state-of-the-art systems have been referred to as advanced autoclaves, hybrid autoclaves, advanced more

Microwave Treatment Technologies

Microwave treatment is essentially a steam-based process since treatment occurs through the action of moist heat and steam generated by microwave energy. Since the waste is not burned, no dioxins nor other air pollutants are produced. These modern technologies are computer controlled and highly automated.

Water contained in the waste is rapidly heated by microwave energy at a frequency of about 2450 MHz. The microwave treatment more

"Autoclaves for Africa" Technologies

The UNDP GEF Project worked on low-cost non-burn medical waste treatment technologies that can be manufactured, operated and serviced in more

Alkaline Hydrolysis

Alkaline hydrolysis or alkaline tissue digestion is a process that converts animal carcasses, human body parts, cadavers, organs and tissues into an aqueous solution of sugars, salts, soaps and other basic substances while leaving behind sterile bone calcium which can be crushed and used a soil conditioner. Since the technology does not involve combustion, no dioxins and other major air pollutants (except for some ammonia) are generated.

The more

New Argentina Technology for the Treatment of Cytotoxic Waste

As cancer treatment and the use of chemotherapeutic agents increase worldwide, countries are faced with the problem of how to dispose of chemotherapeutic waste, including cytotoxic, cytostatic, antineoplastic, and genotoxic waste. Incineration of chemotherapeutic waste has the potential of generating high levels of polychlorinated dioxins and furans. The UNDP GEF Project in Argentina developed a more


PowerPoint Presentation on Non-Incineration Technologies

Compilation of Steam-Based Treatment Technology Vendors   This document provides a partial list of non-incineration technologies for the more